Saturday, June 29, 2013

Debating in English

What is Debating?
A debate is a structured argument.  Two sides speak alternately for and against a particular contention usually based on a topical issue.  Unlike the arguments you might have with your family or friends however, each person is allocated a time they are allowed to speak for and any interjections are carefully controlled.  The subject of the dispute is often prearranged so you may find yourself having to support opinions with which you do not normally agree.  You also have to argue as part of a team, being careful not to contradict what others on your side have said.
Why debate?
It is an excellent way of improving speaking skills and is particularly helpful in providing experience in developing a convincing argument. Those of you who are forced to argue against your natural point of view realize that arguments, like coins, always have at least two sides.

The Basic Debating Skills
Style is the manner in which you communicate your arguments.  This is the most basic part of debating to master.  Content and strategy are worth little unless you deliver your material in a confident and persuasive way.
It is vital to talk at a pace which is fast enough to sound intelligent and allow you time to say what you want, but slow enough to be easily understood. 
Varying tone is what makes you sound interesting.  Listening to one tone for an entire presentation is boring.
Speaking quite loudly is sometimes a necessity, but it is by no means necessary to shout through every debate regardless of context.  There is absolutely no need speak any more loudly than the volume at which everyone in the room can comfortably hear you.  Shouting does not win debates.  Speaking too quietly is clearly disastrous since no one will be able to hear you.

The ability to concisely and clearly express complex issues is what debating is all about.  The main reason people begin to sound unclear is usually because they lose the “stream of thought” which is keeping them going. It is also important to keep it simple. While long words may make you sound clever, they may also make you incomprehensible. 
Use of notes and eye contact
Notes are essential, but they must be brief and well organized to be effective.  There is absolutely no point in trying to speak without notes. Of course, notes should never become obtrusive and damage your contact with the audience, nor should they ever be read from verbatim.  Most people sketch out the main headings of their speech, with brief notes under each. 
When writing notes for rebuttal during the debate, it is usually better to use a separate sheet of paper so you can take down the details of what the other speakers have said and then transfer a rough outline onto the notes you will actually be using. 
Eye contact with the audience is very important, but keep shifting your gaze. No one likes to be stared at. 

Content is what you actually say in the debate. The arguments used to develop your own side’s case and rebut the opposite side’s. The information on content provided below is a general overview of what will be expected when you debate. The final logistics of how long you will be debating, how many people will be in your group, and how the debate will unfold (ie: which team speaks first etc.), will all be decided by your tutorial leader.
Case (argument)- the whole
Introduction - The case your group is making must be outlined in the introduction.  This involves stating your main arguments and explaining the general thrust of your case.  This must be done briefly since the most important thing is to get on and actually argue it. It is also a good idea to indicate the aspects of the subject to be discussed by each of the team members.
Conclusion - At the end, once everyone has spoken, it is useful to briefly summarize what your group has said and why.

Case (argument)- the parts
Having outlined the whole of your argument, you must then begin to build a case (the parts).  The best way to do this is to divide your case into between two and four arguments (or divide your case based on the number of people in your group).  You must justify your arguments with basic logic, worked examples, statistics, and quotes.  Debating is all about the strategy of “proof”. Proof, or evidence, supporting your assertion is what makes it an argument. There are a number of ways of dividing up cases according to groups of arguments (eg political/economic/social or moral/practical or international/regional etc.) or just according to individual arguments if you can’t group any together.  Under each of these basic headings you should then explain the reasoning behind the argument and justify it using the methods outlined above.  It is usually best to put the most important arguments first.  Here is an example of a case outline:
   “The media exert more influence over what people think than the government does.  This is true for three reasons.  Firstly, most people base their votes on what they see and hear in the media.Secondly, the media can set the political agenda between elections by deciding what issues to report and in how much detail.  Thirdly, the media have successfully demonized politicians over the last ten years so that now people are more likely to believe journalists than politicians.”  
All of the arguments in this case outline are debatable (almost immediately you can see the counter-arguments), but they give the case a wide range which cover all kinds of issues.  The trick is not to come up with a watertight case, but a well argued one.  Think: “Can I argue that?”
Rebuttal – the parts
Arguments can be factually, morally or logically flawed. They may be misinterpretations or they may also be unimportant or irrelevant.  A team may also contradict one another or fail to complete the tasks they set themselves.  These are the basics of rebuttal and almost every argument can be found wanting in at least one of these respects.  Here are a few examples:
1.   “Compulsory euthanasia at age 70 would save the country money in pensions and healthcare.”  This is true, but is morally flawed.
2.  “Banning cigarette product placement in films will cause more young people to smoke because it will make smoking more mysterious and taboo.”  This is logically flawed, the ban would be more likely to stop the steady stream of images which make smoking seem attractive and glamorous and actually reduce the number of young people smoking.
3.   “My partner will then look at the economic issues...”  “Blah..blah..blah...(5 minutes later and still no mention of the economic issues)”  This is a clear failure to explain a major part of the case and attention should be drawn to it.  Even better is when a speaker starts with, “to win this debate there are three things I must do…”.  If the speaker fails to do any of those things you can then hang her or him by the noose by repeating their exact words – by his or her own admission he or she cannot have won the debate.
Rebuttal – the whole:
It is very important to have a good perspective of the debate and to identify what the key arguments are.  It isn’t enough to rebut a few random arguments here and there.  Of course the techniques used above are invaluable but they must be used appropriately.  There are a number of things you should do to systematically break down a team’s case: 
1.  Ask yourself how the other side have approached the case. Is their methodology flawed?
2.  Consider what tasks the other side set themselves (if any) and whether they have in fact addressed these. 
3.  Consider what the general emphasis of the case is and what assumptions it makes. Try to refute these. 
4.  Take the main arguments and do the same thing.  It is not worth repeating a point of rebuttal that has been used by someone else already, but you can refer to it to show that the argument has not stood up.  It is not necessary to correct every example used.  You won’t have time and your aim is to show the other side’s case to be flawed in the key areas. 

Reading Comprehension

Seven Strategies to Teach Students Text Comprehension

Comprehension strategies are conscious plans — sets of steps that good readers use to make sense of text. Comprehension strategy instruction helps students become purposeful, active readers who are in control of their own reading comprehension. The seven strategies here appear to have a firm scientific basis for improving text comprehension

Students who are good at monitoring their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not. They have strategies to "fix" problems in their understanding as the problems arise. Research shows that instruction, even in the early grades, can help students become better at monitoring their comprehension.

1. Monitoring comprehension

Comprehension monitoring instruction teaches students to:
  • Be aware of what they do understand
  • Identify what they do not understand
  • Use appropriate strategies to resolve problems in comprehension

2. Metacognition

Metacognition can be defined as "thinking about thinking." Good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading. Before reading, they might clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text. During reading, they might monitor their understanding, adjusting their reading speed to fit the difficulty of the text and "fixing" any comprehension problems they have. After reading, they check their understanding of what they read.
Students may use several comprehension monitoring strategies:
  • Identify where the difficulty occurs
    "I don't understand the second paragraph on page 76."
  • Identify what the difficulty is
    "I don't get what the author means when she says, 'Arriving in America was a milestone in my grandmother's life.'"
  • Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words
    "Oh, so the author means that coming to America was a very important event in her grandmother's life."
  • Look back through the text
    "The author talked about Mr. McBride in Chapter 2, but I don't remember much about him. Maybe if I reread that chapter, I can figure out why he's acting this way now."
  • Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the difficulty
    "The text says, 'The groundwater may form a stream or pond or create a wetland. People can also bring groundwater to the surface.' Hmm, I don't understand how people can do that… Oh, the next section is called 'Wells.' I'll read this section to see if it tells how they do it."

3. Graphic and semantic organizers

Graphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships between concepts in a text or using diagrams. Graphic organizers are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs, charts, frames, or clusters.
Regardless of the label, graphic organizers can help readers focus on concepts and how they are related to other concepts. Graphic organizers help students read and understand textbooks and picture books.
Graphic organizers can:
  • Help students focus on text structure "differences between fiction and nonfiction" as they read
  • Provide students with tools they can use to examine and show relationships in a text
  • Help students write well-organized summaries of a text
Here are some examples of graphic organizers:

4. Answering questions

Questions can be effective because they:
  • Give students a purpose for reading
  • Focus students' attention on what they are to learn
  • Help students to think actively as they read
  • Encourage students to monitor their comprehension
  • Help students to review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know
The Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) encourages students to learn how to answer questions better. Students are asked to indicate whether the information they used to answer questions about the text was textually explicit information (information that was directly stated in the text), textually implicit information (information that was implied in the text), or information entirely from the student's own background knowledge.
There are four different types of questions:
  • "Right There"
    Questions found right in the text that ask students to find the one right answer located in one place as a word or a sentence in the passage.
    Example: Who is Frog's friend? Answer: Toad
  • "Think and Search"
    Questions based on the recall of facts that can be found directly in the text. Answers are typically found in more than one place, thus requiring students to "think" and "search" through the passage to find the answer.
    Example: Why was Frog sad? Answer: His friend was leaving.
  • "Author and You"
    Questions require students to use what they already know, with what they have learned from reading the text. Student's must understand the text and relate it to their prior knowledge before answering the question.
    Example: How do think Frog felt when he found Toad? Answer: I think that Frog felt happy because he had not seen Toad in a long time. I feel happy when I get to see my friend who lives far away.
  • "On Your Own"
    Questions are answered based on a students prior knowledge and experiences. Reading the text may not be helpful to them when answering this type of question.
    Example: How would you feel if your best friend moved away? Answer: I would feel very sad if my best friend moved away because I would miss her.

5. Generating questions

By generating questions, students become aware of whether they can answer the questions and if they understand what they are reading. Students learn to ask themselves questions that require them to combine information from different segments of text. For example, students can be taught to ask main idea questions that relate to important information in a text.

6. Recognizing story structure

In story structure instruction, students learn to identify the categories of content (characters, setting, events, problem, resolution). Often, students learn to recognize story structure through the use of story maps. Instruction in story structure improves students' comprehension.

7. Summarizing

Summarizing requires students to determine what is important in what they are reading and to put it into their own words. Instruction in summarizing helps students:
  • Identify or generate main ideas
  • Connect the main or central ideas
  • Eliminate unnecessary information
  • Remember what they read

Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit

Research shows that explicit teaching techniques are particularly effective for comprehension strategy instruction. In explicit instruction, teachers tell readers why and when they should use strategies, what strategies to use, and how to apply them. The steps of explicit instruction typically include direct explanation, teacher modeling ("thinking aloud"), guided practice, and application.
  • Direct explanation
    The teacher explains to students why the strategy helps comprehension and when to apply the strategy.
  • Modeling
    The teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by "thinking aloud" while reading the text that the students are using.
  • Guided practice
    The teacher guides and assists students as they learn how and when to apply the strategy.
  • Application
    The teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently.
Effective comprehension strategy instruction can be accomplished through cooperative learning, which involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks. Cooperative learning instruction has been used successfully to teach comprehension strategies. Students work together to understand texts, helping each other learn and apply comprehension strategies. Teachers help students learn to work in groups. Teachers also provide modeling of the comprehension strategies.

Teaching Grammar

Grammar is central to the teaching and learning of languages. It is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well.
Many people, including language teachers, hear the word "grammar" and think of a fixed set of word forms and rules of usage. They associate "good" grammar with the prestige forms of the language, such as those used in writing and in formal oral presentations, and "bad" or "no" grammar with the language used in everyday conversation or used by speakers of nonprestige forms.
Language teachers who adopt this definition focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules. They teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling students on them. This results in bored, disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests, but consistently make errors when they try to use the language in context.
Other language teachers, influenced by recent theoretical work on the difference between language learning and language acquisition, tend not to teach grammar at all. Believing that children acquire their first language without overt grammar instruction, they expect students to learn their second language the same way. They assume that students will absorb grammar rules as they hear, read, and use the language in communication activities. This approach does not allow students to use one of the major tools they have as learners: their active understanding of what grammar is and how it works in the language they already know.
The communicative competence model balances these extremes. The model recognizes that overt grammar instruction helps students acquire the language more efficiently, but it incorporates grammar teaching and learning into the larger context of teaching students to use the language. Instructors using this model teach students the grammar they need to know to accomplish defined communication tasks.

Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar

The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes. This goal has three implications:
  • Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts.
  • Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that are relevant to the immediate communication task.
  • Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility.

Overt Grammar Instruction

Adult students appreciate and benefit from direct instruction that allows them to apply critical thinking skills to language learning. Instructors can take advantage of this by providing explanations that give students a descriptive understanding (declarative knowledge) of each point of grammar.
  • Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students' first language or both. The goal is to facilitate understanding.
  • Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes, especially for lower level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited.
  • Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.
An important part of grammar instruction is providing examples. Teachers need to plan their examples carefully around two basic principles:
  • Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. They must present the language appropriately, be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used, and be to the point of the lesson.
  • Use the examples as teaching tools. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary.

Relevance of Grammar Instruction

In the communicative competence model, the purpose of learning grammar is to learn the language of which the grammar is a part. Instructors therefore teach grammar forms and structures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students need to complete.
Compare the traditional model and the communicative competence model for teaching the English past tense:
Traditional: grammar for grammar's sake
  • Teach the regular -ed form with its two pronunciation variants
  • Teach the doubling rule for verbs that end in (for example, wed-wedded)
  • Hand out a list of irregular verbs that students must memorize
  • Do pattern practice drills for -ed
  • Do substitution drills for irregular verbs
Communicative competence: grammar for communication's sake
  • Distribute two short narratives about recent experiences or events, each one to half of the class
  • Teach the regular -ed form, using verbs that occur in the texts as examples. Teach the pronunciation and doubling rules if those forms occur in the texts.
  • Teach the irregular verbs that occur in the texts.
  • Students read the narratives, ask questions about points they don't understand.
  • Students work in pairs in which one member has read Story A and the other Story B. Students interview one another; using the information from the interview, they then write up or orally repeat the story they have not read.

Error Correction

At all proficiency levels, learners produce language that is not exactly the language used by native speakers. Some of the differences are grammatical, while others involve vocabulary selection and mistakes in the selection of language appropriate for different contexts.
In responding to student communication, teachers need to be careful not to focus on error correction to the detriment of communication and confidence building. Teachers need to let students know when they are making errors so that they can work on improving. Teachers also need to build students' confidence in their ability to use the language by focusing on the content of their communication rather than the grammatical form.
Teachers can use error correction to support language acquisition, and avoid using it in ways that undermine students' desire to communicate in the language, by taking cues from context.
  • When students are doing structured output activities that focus on development of new language skills, use error correction to guide them.
Student (in class): I buy a new car yesterday. 
Teacher: You bought a new car yesterday. Remember, the past tense of buy is bought.
  • When students are engaged in communicative activities, correct errors only if they interfere with comprehensibility. Respond using correct forms, but without stressing them.
Student (greeting teacher) : I buy a new car yesterday! 
Teacher: You bought a new car? That's exciting! What kind?

Strategies for Learning Grammar

Language teachers and language learners are often frustrated by the disconnect between knowing the rules of grammar and being able to apply those rules automatically in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This disconnect reflects a separation between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge.
  • Declarative knowledge is knowledge about something. Declarative knowledge enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in pattern practice drills.
  • Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something. Procedural knowledge enables a student to apply a rule of grammar in communication.
For example, declarative knowledge is what you have when you read and understand the instructions for programming the DVD player. Procedural knowledge is what you demonstrate when you program the DVD player.
Procedural knowledge does not translate automatically into declarative knowledge; many native speakers can use their language clearly and correctly without being able to state the rules of its grammar. Likewise, declarative knowledge does not translate automatically into procedural knowledge; students may be able to state a grammar rule, but consistently fail to apply the rule when speaking or writing.
To address the declarative knowledge/procedural knowledge dichotomy, teachers and students can apply several strategies.

1. Relate knowledge needs to learning goals.

Identify the relationship of declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge to student goals for learning the language. Students who plan to use the language exclusively for reading journal articles need to focus more on the declarative knowledge of grammar and discourse structures that will help them understand those texts. Students who plan to live in-country need to focus more on the procedural knowledge that will help them manage day to day oral and written interactions.

2. Apply higher order thinking skills.

Recognize that development of declarative knowledge can accelerate development of procedural knowledge. Teaching students how the language works and giving them opportunities to compare it with other languages they know allows them to draw on critical thinking and analytical skills. These processes can support the development of the innate understanding that characterizes procedural knowledge.

3. Provide plentiful, appropriate language input.

Understand that students develop both procedural and declarative knowledge on the basis of the input they receive. This input includes both finely tuned input that requires students to pay attention to the relationships among form, meaning, and use for a specific grammar rule, and roughly tuned input that allows students to encounter the grammar rule in a variety of contexts. (For more on input, see Teaching Goals and Methods.)

4. Use predicting skills.

Discourse analyst Douglas Biber has demonstrated that different communication types can be characterized by the clusters of linguistic features that are common to those types. Verb tense and aspect, sentence length and structure, and larger discourse patterns all may contribute to the distinctive profile of a given communication type. For example, a history textbook and a newspaper article in English both use past tense verbs almost exclusively. However, the newspaper article will use short sentences and a discourse pattern that alternates between subjects or perspectives. The history textbook will use complex sentences and will follow a timeline in its discourse structure. Awareness of these features allows students to anticipate the forms and structures they will encounter in a given communication task.

5. Limit expectations for drills.

  • Mechanical drills in which students substitute pronouns for nouns or alternate the person, number, or tense of verbs can help students memorize irregular forms and challenging structures. However, students do not develop the ability to use grammar correctly in oral and written interactions by doing mechanical drills, because these drills separate form from meaning and use. The content of the prompt and the response is set in advance; the student only has to supply the correct grammatical form, and can do that without really needing to understand or communicate anything. The main lesson that students learn from doing these drills is: Grammar is boring.
  • Communicative drills encourage students to connect form, meaning, and use because multiple correct responses are possible. In communicative drills, students respond to a prompt using the grammar point under consideration, but providing their own content. For example, to practice questions and answers in the past tense in English, teacher and students can ask and answer questions about activities the previous evening. The drill is communicative because none of the content is set in advance:
    Teacher: Did you go to the library last night?
    Student 1: No, I didn’t. I went to the movies. (to Student 2): Did you read chapter 3?
    Student 2: Yes, I read chapter 3, but I didn’t understand it. (to Student 3): Did you understand chapter 3?
    Student 3: I didn’t read chapter 3. I went to the movies with Student 1.

Developing Grammar Activities

Many courses and textbooks, especially those designed for lower proficiency levels, use a specified sequence of grammatical topics as their organizing principle. When this is the case, classroom activities need to reflect the grammar point that is being introduced or reviewed. By contrast, when a course curriculum follows a topic sequence, grammar points can be addressed as they come up.
In both cases, instructors can use the Larsen-Freeman pie chart as a guide for developing activities.
For curricula that introduce grammatical forms in a specified sequence, instructors need to develop activities that relate form to meaning and use.
  • Describe the grammar point, including form, meaning, and use, and give examples (structured input)
  • Ask students to practice the grammar point in communicative drills (structured output)
  • Have students do a communicative task that provides opportunities to use the grammar point (communicative output)
For curricula that follow a sequence of topics, instructors need to develop activities that relate the topical discourse (use) to meaning and form.
  • Provide oral or written input (audiotape, reading selection) that addresses the topic (structured input)
  • Review the point of grammar, using examples from the material (structured input)
  • Ask students to practice the grammar point in communicative drills that focus on the topic (structured output)
  • Have students do a communicative task on the topic (communicative output)
See Teaching Goals and Methods for definitions of input and output. See Planning a Lesson for an example of a lesson that incorporates a grammar point into a larger communication task.
When instructors have the opportunity to develop part or all of the course curriculum, they can develop a series of contexts based on the real world tasks that students will need to perform using the language, and then teach grammar and vocabulary in relation to those contexts.
For example, students who plan to travel will need to understand public address announcements in airports and train stations. Instructors can use audiotaped simulations to provide input; teach the grammatical forms that typically occur in such announcements; and then have students practice by asking and answering questions about what was announced.

Assessing Grammar Proficiency

Authentic Assessment
Just as mechanical drills do not teach students the language, mechanical test questions do not assess their ability to use it in authentic ways. In order to provide authentic assessment of students’ grammar proficiency, an evaluation must reflect real-life uses of grammar in context. This means that the activity must have a purpose other than assessment and require students to demonstrate their level of grammar proficiency by completing some task.
To develop authentic assessment activities, begin with the types of tasks that students will actually need to do using the language. Assessment can then take the form of communicative drills and communicative activities like those used in the teaching process.
For example, the activity based on audiotapes of public address announcements (Developing Grammar Activities) can be converted into an assessment by having students respond orally or in writing to questions about a similar tape. In this type of assessment, the instructor uses a checklist or rubric to evaluate the student’s understanding and/or use of grammar in context. (See Assessing Learning for more on checklists and rubrics.)
Mechanical Tests
Mechanical tests do serve one purpose: They motivate students to memorize. They can therefore serve as prompts to encourage memorization of irregular forms and vocabulary items. Because they test only memory capacity, not language ability, they are best used as quizzes and given relatively little weight in evaluating student performance and progress.

Do you know TOEFL Test?

Purpose of the TOEFL Test
The purpose of the TOEFL test is to evaluate the English proficiency of people who are non-native English speakers. In addition, international companies, government agencies, scholarship programs, and recruitment agencies use TOEFL scores to evaluate English proficiency.
CBT: The TOEFL test on computer combines many of the same question types as the traditional paper-based test with new question types that can be offered only in the computer format. This is an easy-to-use testing system for even the most basic computer users.
The Computer-Based TOEFL Test has 4 sections
Section 1: Listening
Section 2: Structure (Grammar)
Section 3: Reading
Section 4: Writing

1. Listening Comprehension:
Measures the ESL student’s ability to understand North American English.

2. Structure & Written Expression
Measures the ESL student’s ability to recognize language appropriate for standard written English.

3. Vocabulary & Reading Comprehension
Measures the ESL student’s ability to understand non-technical reading material.

4. Essay Writing
Measures the ESL student’s ability to express ideas in standard written English.

The score range on the CBT TOEFL Test is: 0-300. In other words, the highest possible total score is 300 points.
This breaks down in each section as a scaled score:
Listening: 0-30
Structure/Writing: 0-30
Reading Comprehension: 0-30

The score from the essay in the Writing Section is included in the Structure score. The essay is graded on a scaled score of 0 to 6. 6 is the highest possible total score on the Writing Section. Note: The essay score is one sixth of the total test score.
Number of Questions in the test and the time to complete each section:

Tutorials: 7 untimed tutorials explaining in detail the exam procedure

Listening: 30 to 49 questions with 15-25 minutes to answer the questions. 40-60 minutes to complete entire section. The clock runs while you are answering questions, but not while you are listening to conversations and talks.
Structure: 20-25 questions with 15-20 minutes to complete the questions.
Reading: 44-55 questions with 70-90 minutes to complete the section (includes time spent reading passages and answering questions).
Writing: One assigned essay topic, with 30 minutes to write the essay.
How often can I take the CBT TOEFL test?
If I cancel my scores, can I take the test again?
You may take the CBT TOEFL test only once in any calendar month, even if you took the test and cancelled your scores. For example, if you test in May, you must wait until June to take it again. IMPORTANT: If you take the test more than once in a calendar month, your new scores will not be reported and your test fee will not be refunded. Violation of this policy may also result in additional action being taken.


The Benefits of learning Literature to Linguistics Importance
Learning literature has some3 benefits to the language. One of the benefits itself is for linguistics. It is going to be explained about the benefits of learning literature to the linguistics importance.
Briefly, we have already understood kinds of literary works that show how the language is fully and skillfully used. Meanwhile, how the language is used is based on the patterns. A search for patterns in the way how the language is used is involved in linguistic study. Knowing this, we truly understand that learning literature has beneficial effect to linguistic importance.
1.      What does linguistics importance mean?
 Previously, we have to know what is meant by linguistic importance. Linguistics is a scientific study of language and it has both importance and scope in understanding various components of the language, its origin, structure, vocalization, meaning in relation to the other fields of social human communication development. In other words, linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study. They are language form, language meaning, and language in context.
a.       The first subfields of linguistics are the study of language structures commonly named as grammar, the study of morphology ( the formation and composition of the words), the study of syntax ( the formation and composition of phrases and sentences from words) and phonology (sound system)
b.      The study of the language meaning is concerned with how languages employ logical structures and real word references to convey process and assign meaning, as well as to manage and resolve ambiguity. This category includes the study of semantics (how meaning is inferred from words and concepts) and pragmatics ( how meaning is inferred from context).
Language also looks at the broader context in which language is influenced by social, cultural, historical and political factors. This includes the study of evolutionary linguistics, historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, neurolinguisctics, language acquisition and discourse analysis.
So, those are the scope of various components which are in linguistic they are called as linguistic importance because they have relation to social and human communication development in other word linguistic importance is linguistic component which have relation to the social and human of communication development.
2.      The benefits of learning literature to linguistics importance.
Literature provides both practical and theoretical advantages to the learner. Great works of literature illustrate the power and pleasure of language according to lee (1970) “ it is in literature that the resource of the language are most fully and skillfully used, it seems to follow that the literature should enter into the Language study of those who are to use the language eight the greatest possible skill and effect, (pp.1-2)
Based on above explanation, learning literature has great benefit to linguistic importance. Here is the list of benefits at learning literature to the linguistics importance.
a.       Literature shows many from the characteristics and purpose of conventional language. It means that literature shoe us how the linguistics components are used differently in some literary works because literary language doesn’t depend on conventional language itself.
b.      Literature models a wide range of communication strategies. It means that communication strategy in literature used in literary works. The use of communication strategies in literature is more various and not easily more complicated to get the understanding of such kind of literary work especially for English literary work.
c.       Literature is a teaching for all language skills extending, as povey writes, “linguistic knowledge by giving evidence of extensive and subtle vocabulary usage and complex and exact syntax” it means learning literature will automatically help the learners more skillful to the language skills which they need to support their linguistic components through the types of literary works they ever learn. As marquardt “the study of literature of the language is felt to be surest way to attain these more elusive qualities that go to make up a total mastery of the language”.

Briefly, literature extends linguistic knowledge theory the types literary works they ever learn. Especially for the ESL students who grasp the characteristic of literary language will have learned much about the various uses to which language itself.

·         Mariana, Lina S.S. 2012. Introduction to Literature. Kediri.